President Donald Trump promised during the election campaign to repeal NAFTA and other trade agreements that he considered unfair to the United States. On August 27, 2018, he announced a new trade agreement with Mexico to replace him. The U.S.-Mexico trade agreement, as it was called, would maintain duty-free access for agricultural products on both sides of the border and remove non-tariff barriers to trade, while further promoting agricultural trade between Mexico and the United States and effectively replacing NAFTA. According to a study published in the Journal of International Economics, NAFTA has reduced pollution from the U.S. manufacturing sector: « On average, nearly two-thirds of the reductions in coarse particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from U.S. manufacturing between 1994 and 1998 are due to trade liberalization under NAFTA. » [100] Economists generally agreed that the U.S. economy as a whole benefited from NAFTA as it increased trade. [82] [83] In a 2012 survey conducted by the Global Markets Initiative`s Economic Expert Panel, 95% of respondents said that U.S. citizens benefit from NAFTA on average, while none said nafta harms U.S.

citizens on average. [5] A 2001 review of the Journal of Economic Perspectives found that NAFTA represents a net benefit to the United States. [6] A 2015 study found that wealth in the U.S. increased by 0.08% due to NAFTA tariff reductions and U.S. intra-bloc trade increased by 41%. [63] Many critics of NAFTA saw the deal as a radical experiment developed by influential multinationals who wanted to increase their profits at the expense of ordinary citizens of the countries concerned. Opposition groups argued that the general rules imposed by NAFTA could undermine local governments by preventing them from passing laws or regulations to protect the public interest. Critics have also argued that the treaty would lead to a significant deterioration in environmental and health standards, promote the privatization and deregulation of key public services, and move family farmers to signatory states. On the 29th. In January 2020, President Donald Trump signed the agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada. Canada has not yet adopted it in its parliamentary body until January 2020. Mexico was the first country to ratify the agreement in 2019.

Hanson, David Autor and David Dorn argued in a 2013 paper that increased competition for imports from 1990 to 2007 « explains a quarter of the simultaneous overall decline in U.S. manufacturing employment. » While acknowledging that Mexico and other countries « could also be relevant to (U.S.) labor market outcomes, » they undoubtedly focused on China. The country joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, but is not a party to NAFTA. Meanwhile, Japan`s share of U.S. imports rose from 19% to 6% from 1993 to 2015. Japan is also not a party to NAFTA. Led by the auto industry, the largest export category, Mexican manufacturers maintain a trade surplus of $58.8 billion in goods with the United States. They have also contributed to the growth of a small, educated middle class: Mexico had about nine engineering graduates per 10,000 people in 2015, compared to seven in the United States. The three parties responsible for the formation and maintenance of NAICS are the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia in Mexico, Statistics Canada and the United States Office of Management and Budget through its Economic Classification Policy Committee, which also includes the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Bureau of Labour Statistics and the Bureau of Census. The first version of the classification system was published in 1997. A revision in 2002 reflected major changes in the information sector.

The most recent revision in 2017 created 21 new industries by reclassifying, dividing or combining 29 existing industries. A 2001 review of the existing literature by the Journal of Economic Perspectives found that NAFTA was a net benefit to Mexico. [6] Until 2003, 80% of trade in Mexico was with the United States alone. The surplus in trade revenues, combined with the deficit with the rest of the world, has created a dependency on Mexico`s exports. These effects were evident during the 2001 recession, which resulted in a low or negative rate of Mexican exports. [74] In its May 24, 2017 report, the Congressional Research Service (CRS) wrote that the economic impact of NAFTA on the United States . . .